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Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Choose Form Six Not STPM

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    50+ Scholarships for SPM and STPM Result Holders
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Choose Form 6 Not STPM

by Jaclyn Sam (Share your thought-provoking opinions with 50,000+ students in Malaysia!)

Most of us would think that both are the same. Well, Form 6 is a program and STPM is an examination after you complete Form 6. To those who already have your fancy plans to study in some expensive colleges and set your mind to study abroad, you might want to think twice. As the following will tell you the difference between Form 6 and STPM.

Form Six 6 / STPM

Like most of us, I used to think Form 6 is a tougher passport to degree. Well, could you tell me which pre-university isn’t? Let’s lay downs the stereotypes of Form 6: difficult, wasting time and pressure. Am I right? In fact, what I have mentioned is STPM and not Form 6. Form 6 the exact opposite of what I mentioned.

What is Form 6 actually then? Form 6 is fun, is about time management skills and easy. Yes, EASY. Unlike most people, I took Form 6 out of convenience not because my parents ask me to or I really want to enter local public university but because I could not decide. Being the second youngest among my cousins, I have seen the way my cousin studied for STPM, sleeping at 2.00a.m to understand Krebs cycle or to master probability. I told myself, I AM NEVER GOING DOWN THAT PATH. Here I am done with it, and actually did not regret a moment of it.

See the thing with STPM is that all the studying and no fun and that is just a part of it. But in Form 6, everything is much easier for you, trust me! In Form 6, priorities are given to Form 6 students. Most likely, teachers offer you club president, at least board of directors of the club to help us. We needed more than they do anyway, for university applications, scholarships and whatnot. Teachers help you as in they are willing to spend couple of hours after school to tutor you. Who would do that, say, in A-Level? In A-level, every minute lecturer spend is money unlike teachers in school who understands what you are facing.

In Form 6, classes are small; I had 14 classmates in my class, the smaller the class, the closer we are. You will meet people of different backgrounds and speaking different languages. Yes, different languages! Having a group of friends who speaks English only, I had to adapt to mandarin speaking classmates in Form 6. Though I am Chinese but I am not well-verse in mandarin. That was difficult. As time passed, you learned to adapt and learn something new from others.

Form 6 is about adapting and accepting changes. Form 6 establishes a strong foundation for you to find out who you really are! You must be wondering in 18 months, did I become a different person? As exaggerating as it sounds, Yes, I did.

The magical thing in Form 6, it brings students together, you make instant friends and friends you never thought you would be friends with.  Neither is 18 months short nor is it long, but it definitely gives ample time to grow and be mature. You value time more than you are in form 5. When I was in form 5 than I took 10 subjects while Form 6 I took 4 subjects and I made the most out of every day. You are motivated to study because STPM is tough.

And where do you get less than RM3.50 lunch every day, if not school? You tend to save so much more while in school than in colleges because once in college, people treat you like adult, no more subsidies.

I asked most of my friends, what changes most in them after taking Form 6? Majority said they become more mature than most of their friends who are in college. Those 18 months changes the way you see things, instead of reacting to words, you try to understand the situation. In the 18 months, you would know what you want. Believe me or not? Yes, it does.

In Form 6, school doesn’t separate you between the smart kids and average kids; you choose what major you want to be in. Say, all this while you have been in the first few classes, in Form 6 you will be mixed with everyone whether you are a smart kid from the first class or the average kid from the fourth class. The thing is, people tend to have stereotypes towards who and who from so and so class but in Form 6, stereotypes do not exist you mix with everyone. Seeing people out of your comfort zone makes you a better person and changes your perspective.

So what about STPM? STPM is part of Form 6 but not the entire thing. STPM for me was tough, really tough but Form 6 was easy. Get that right. Taking STPM does not mean you will end up in local public university for those who see it that way, STPM broaden your options from local public university to private university or abroad.

Why not spend 18 months in school and experience all these? Because once you are in university, you will be glad you did it whether you choose to go local public or private. Is not wasting time, what’s the rush? You have the whole lifetime ahead and did you know most of us spend more than 50 years working? What is another 18 months in school?

One more thing, why spend a hefty on private pre-university when you can spend less than RM 100 for pre-university? Go figure, guys!

Jaclyn Sam, 24, had completed STPM in 2011 and graduated from UNIMAS. She pursued Social Science, major in International Studies. She did biology in STPM and found out that it was not her cup of tea. Found her passion in social science while working in Borders. She enjoys reading fictional books as well as National Geography. She believes knowledge is power. With knowledge, she believes we can make the world a better place. She aspires to work with United Nations and to teach as well.


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Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Malaysia top 10 basic credit cards suitable for university students with low income

Saving money as a student on your credit card bills

Guest post by Sabrina Warmerdam (Share your tips with 50,000+ Malaysian students)

All of us know that students don’t have all the financial resources they would like to have as they have to finance their studies. Also, as student are usually not big spenders it's more beneficial for them to have a credit card which they don’t have to swipe a numerous amount of time each year to get an annual fee waived.

Malaysia Top 10 Basic Credit Cards for Students with Low Income

Students try in every way to save some money, so why not while using a credit card? A credit card has several features on which you can save some money.
  1. Pay attention on the annual fee rate, some credit cards have an annual fee (which can be either waived or not) and some credit cards have no annual fee at all. 
  2. Make your decision after you checked the interest rate of the credit card. Some credit cards have a lower interest rate compared to other credit cards.
  3. Check all the benefits and features of the credit card and make up your mind from which features you want to benefit. Credit cards do often have benefits for spending on petrol, retail and overseas. You can earn Air Miles with some credit cards and some of them have the benefit of a travel insurance. It’s important to all check these and to make up your mind whether you want to benefit from them or not. 
Only 6% of all credit cards available in Malaysia can be considered as basic credit cards. Therefore, it is very hard to find these cards. A basic credit card has the following criteria:
  1. Has no annual fee / or annual fee waiver
  2. Requires RM 2,500 monthly income at most
  3. Is available to anyone
So, of all the cards which met the criteria above, we made a top 10 list of basic credit cards and some helpful information.

Malaysia Top 10 Basic Credit Cards

1. BSN Classic Card-i


BSN’s Classic Card-i is one of the basic cards with a relatively low interest rate of only 13.5%. To be eligible for this credit card, your minimum income should be at least RM 2,000. So next to the fact that the card has no annual fee and is eligible to anyone, you can also benefit by earnings points. For each Ringgit spent on retail and petrol, you earn one point and for each Ringgit spent overseas you earn 2 points.

2. Maybank 2 Gold Card


Maybank’s 2 Gold Card has the lowest interest rate among the basic credit cards, only 8.88%. One downside of this credit card is that you should at least earn RM 2,500 each month in order to be eligible for this card. However, on the other hand you will also benefit from the fact that you can earn points while using this credit card. For every Ringgit spent on retail and overseas you’ll earn 5 points, for every Ringgit spent on petrol and flight purchases you will earn 1 point. Also, these points can be exchanged for Air Miles, namely, 4.77 points can be converted into 1 Enrich Mile, 1 KrisFlyer Mile or 1 Asia Mile.

3. CIMB Islamic Platinum


CIMB’s Islamic Platinum card is one of the several basic credit cards with an interest rate of 15%. Furthermore, you are eligible for this credit card when you have a monthly income of at least RM 2,000. Next to this, you can save some money by earning points while using your credit card. For each Ringgit spent on retail and petrol, you’ll earn 1 point. For each Ringgit spent overseas, you’ll earn 2 points. These points can be exchanged for Air Miles, 6 points can be converted into 1 Enrich Mile.

4. BSN Classic Card


BSN’s Classic Card has, compared to the other basic credit cards, a relatively low interest rate of only 13.5%. Furthermore, if your monthly income exceeds RM 2,000, you are eligible for this credit card. Next to these facts, it is always nice to save some more money by earning points while using your credit card. For each Ringgit spent on retail and petrol, you’ll earn 1 point. For each Ringgit spent overseas, you’ll earn 2 points. These points can be converted into Air Miles, 5.5 points can be exchanged to 1 Enrich Mile.

5. Maybank Ikhwan Gold Card


Maybank’s Ikhwan Gold Card has, just like a lot of other basic credit cards, an interest rate of 15%. To be eligible for this credit card, you should at least earn a monthly income of RM 2,000. Furthermore, with this credit card you can also earn points in order to save some more money. If you spend one Ringgit on retail, petrol and overseas, you’ll earn 1 point. Also, you’ll get 5% cashback on spending in selected grocery outlets.

6. AmBank Gold Card


AmBank’s Gold Card is also a basic credit card as it has no annual fee and is available to anyone. Furthermore, it has an interest rate of 15% and a minimum monthly required income of RM 2,000. You can save some more money with this credit card by earning points while using it. For each Ringgit spent on retail and overseas, you’ll earn 1 point. These points can be exchanged into Air Miles, 10 points can be converted into 1 Enrich Mile or 1 BIG Point. Next to the points and Air Miles, you can also benefit from a travel insurance of up to RM 500,000.

7. OCBC Titanium Blue/Pink


OCBC’s Titanium Blue / Pink credit card has a 15% interest rate, and a minimum monthly required income of RM 2,000. Furthermore, you can earn 0.1% cashback on retail and petrol spending and 1% cashback on spending overseas and online tranasactions.

8. CitiBank Choice Card


CitiBank’s Choice Card is also one of the basic credit cards. You are eligible for this credit card if your monthly income exceeds RM 2,000. Moreover, the credit card has an interest rate of 15%. Also, Citi Bank offers a few benefits while using this credit card. For each Ringgit spend on petrol and retail, you’ll earn 1 point. These earned points can be converted into Air Miles. 6.5 points can be exchanged for 1 Asia Mile, 7 points can be exchanged for 1 KrisFlyer Mile, and 8.5 points can be exchanged for 1 Enrich Mile.

9. Public Bank – Petron Gold Card


Public Bank’s Petron Gold Card is also part of the 6% basic credit cards. It has an interest rate of 15% and you are eligible for this credit card when your monthly income exceeds RM 2,000. Furthermore, with this card you get a 0.5% cashback on retail, petrol and overseas spending.

10. Hong Leong – I’m Card


The I’m Card of Hong Leong has an interest rate of 15%. Furthermore, you are eligible for this credit card if you have a monthly income of RM 2,000.

Choosing a credit card can be a difficult task as there are hundreds of credit cards available in the Malaysian market. However, narrowing your choice down to a basic credit card can make your search a lot easier and besides save you a little money too.

Sabrina Warmerdam is a data analyst intern at CompareHero.my, an online comparison website for credit cards, personal loans, and broadband. Next to comparisons, we regularly publish blog articles with insights about financial topics, e.g. Best Travel Credit Cards and Saving Money on Broadband.


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Wednesday, May 04, 2016

Gap Year Is Part of a Growing and Expensive Trend

Editor's note: Some Malaysian students take Gap Year before enrolling into formal tertiary education. Read our previous posts on gap year experiences here:

Malia Obama’s ‘Gap Year’ Is Part of a Growing (and Expensive) Trend

By MIKE McPHATE, first published at The New York Times

 The White House announced that Malia Obama, 17, would be delaying her college start date. It didn’t say how she would spend her year. (Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times)
It sounds awfully nice: A yearlong postponement of schoolwork.

The White House announced on Sunday that Malia Obama, the president’s older daughter, would be among the thousands of students to take a so-called gap year between high school and college.

The hiatus from classrooms, textbooks and tests has become an increasingly popular choice. The idea is that university-bound students go on an adventure, do something meaningful and, if all goes to plan, arrive at campus a year later more mature, focused and attuned to their goals.

Still, despite growing acceptance of the gap year, or bridge year, by university administrators — and its ready adoption in other parts of the world — many Americans continue to view it with trepidation.

Why are gap years becoming more popular?


Some parents worry that their children could veer off track academically and never recover, but higher education experts argue that the opposite appears to be true. Studies have shown that not only do the students go on to perform better than their non-gap-year classmates, they also tend to end up in more satisfying careers. (Although, researchers note that self-selection could play a part as gap-year students tend to be more affluent).

“For some reason there’s some concern around — ‘Does it contribute to academic atrophy?’ What we’re finding is absolutely not,” said Ethan Knight, founder of American Gap Association, an accreditation organization. “If anything, it connects the theory that they’ve been exposed to over their many years of education to the reality of what’s going on in the real world.”

A growing number of colleges and universities, including all eight institutions in the Ivy League system, have been signing on to the idea as a constructive choice for incoming freshmen. Harvard University, where Malia plans to start in the fall of 2017, has for decades been urging members of its incoming class to consider it.

And the case has only grown stronger with the rising intensity of competition to get into elite colleges, according to an essay written by William Fitzsimmons, Harvard’s dean of admissions, and two other school officials.

“Faced with the fast pace of growing up today, some students are clearly distressed, engaging in binge drinking and other self-destructive behaviors,” the authors wrote.

One remedy, they suggest, is to take time out. For the scores of incoming Harvard students who heed the advice each year, the authors added, “The results have been uniformly positive.”

Are gap years expensive?


In the reaction to Malia’s decision on social media, some people have pointed out, occasionally with a note of contempt, that the financial barriers to embarking on a gap year can be too much for some families. A yearlong, immersive, international program, for example, can run about $35,000.

But university administrators also note that gap-year plans come in a variety of forms, some of them at no cost. AmeriCorps’ City Year, for example, pays students stipends to teach. Another popular program, Global Citizen Year, provides financial support — more than $6 million since 2010 — for students to pursue experiential learning.

But those programs can be highly competitive. City Year, for example, says it selects only about one in four applicants.

“It’s hard to do it if you don’t have the resources,” said Chris Yager, the founder of Where There Be Dragons, which leads international programs.

But, he added, organizations that target gap-year students often tend to be driven by a sense of mission rather than profit, and many programs, including his, offer at least some level of financial assistance. “People who are doing the gap-year programming, right now at least, they’re all really principled people,” he said.

Then there are those gap-year plans created by students who possess rare initiative. Robert Clagett, the director of college counseling at St. Stephen’s Episcopal School in Austin, Tex., recalled one who spent the first third of her year tending llamas at a monastery in North Dakota. The next third, she worked for a judge in Oklahoma City, and, finally, she volunteered at an orphanage in the Dominican Republic.

“It’s not unusual for students to spend maybe half their gap year with a job,” Mr. Clagett said, “maybe living at home, or an internship where they make some money, and then spending the second half of the year traveling or having whatever kinds of experiences they’re hoping for.”

Which schools offer gap-year programs?


More universities have begun formal gap-year programs that take varying approaches to enrollment and the providing of aid, including Princeton, Tufts, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Elon University.

At Princeton and North Carolina, for example, freshman-year enrollment is deferred and at least some financial help is provided, while Elon considers participants enrolled and charges its regular tuition. Another program offered by the New School in New York City also treats students as enrolled and offers up to a full year of academic credit.

Florida State University is among the latest campuses to start offering scholarships to gap-year students. Late last year, the public institution said applicants could get up to $5,000, and sent an email to the entire incoming freshmen class urging them to consider deferring their freshman year.

“We wanted to spearhead this effort in higher education and to be a leader, and to showcase gap years as an important part of the educational system,” said Joe O’Shea, the university’s director of undergraduate research and academic engagement.

“We’ve had a really strong response so far,” Mr. O’Shea added. “It’s been really exciting.”

O.K., but what do students say?


There is growing evidence that as more students discover that postponing their freshmen year is an option, many take the opportunity.

The exact number of young people who take gap years is not known, but the American Gap Association said its surveys indicate that it has been on a sharp rise for at least a decade. At the same time, attendance at the national circuit of USA Gap Year Fairs has seen explosive growth in recent years, organizers say.

This is all great news, said Mr. Clagett, the St. Stephen’s administrator, who is a longtime proponent of the gap-year movement.

Asked if there is any downside to gap years, he paused. In about 40 years of working in higher education, he said, “I have yet to work with a student who has regretted taking a gap year.”

In a letter to The New York Times, Aaron Schwartz, a Princeton student, said his gap year in Urubamba, Peru, was “the best decision of my life.” Returning volunteers are not only enriched academically, he said, but they are imbued with a new sense of civic responsibility.

“So my advice? Do something different. Go on an adventure. Learn a new language. You won’t regret it.”


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Thursday, April 28, 2016

Exam Tips: How to Score A in CIE AS and A Level Biology

Guest post by Daniel Lim (Share your exam tips with 50,000+ Malaysian students)

I got 4A for my AS Level in October 2013 and 4A* for my A Level in May 2014. The 4 subjects that I took were Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Do you want to know how to score in AS and A Level for these 4 subjects? Here, I am posting the complete tips for AS and A Level. These tips are intended for all students who are sitting for AS or A Level in May 2016 or October 2016.

AS & A Level Biology Tips:

One of the 4 subjects I took was Biology. My percentage uniform mark for Biology was 90% in AS Level and 92% in A Level. Do you want to know how to score in AS and A Level for Biology? Here, I am posting the complete tips for AS and A Level Biology.

CIE AS & A Level Biology Exam Tips

1. Studying tips

  • When your teacher is teaching in class, pay attention to what your teacher says. Make sure you understand everything taught by your teacher. If you do not understand anything, ask your teacher or friends.
  • You need notes or reference books that are complete.
    • For AS, I recommend you to use my notes. You can download my notes here.
    • For A2, I recommend you to use this reference book:
      Cambridge International AS and A Level Biology, by C. J. Clegg (Hachette UK)
  • When studying a chapter, read through all the explanations in my notes or in the reference book sentence by sentence. Make sure that you truly understand each sentence before moving on to the next sentence. Certain topics may require understanding of earlier topics, so make sure you understand those topics. You should also try to relate them to what your teacher had taught in college or school.
  • You should be actively involved in all experiments carried out in college or school because this can help improve your practical skills which are essential for Paper 3 and Paper 5.
  • Then, you have to remember everything that you understood. You can memorise the sentences in my notes or in the reference book, or you can also create your own sentences that have the same meaning and memorise them. If you create your own sentences, make sure that you do not change the original meaning, do not leave out any important points and do not change the important keywords and scientific terms. However, do not just memorise without understanding. Once you have understood, it will be quite easy to remember and you will be unlikely to forget any of the points.
  • For certain facts, there may be no explanation for them so it is not possible to understand them. In that case, you have to remember and memorise those facts.
  • You have to regularly revise every topics again and again. When revising, go through all the explanation and facts in my notes or in the reference book. Make sure that you do not forget anything that you have understood previously. Regular and repeated revision will help you to remember all the explanation and facts for a long time.
  • When you have understood all topics, you have to do past year A Level questions. They are available on the internet. After doing the questions, refer to the mark scheme and do self marking. The mark schemes can usually be found on the same website as the past year questions.
  • You should understand how the mark schemes are used. In the mark schemes for Biology, most marks are independent of any other marks, which means that they can be scored without other marks also being scored, unless otherwise stated by the mark scheme. If any biological term is underlined or highlighted, it means that the exact term must be used in the answer and no other term is acceptable even if the meaning is the same, but grammatical variants of the term is accepted. If any non-biological term is underlined or highlighted, it means that either the exact term or other terms with the same meaning must be used in the answer. If any words are placed in brackets, it means that the words need not be present in the answer for the mark to be scored. In the mark schemes, A means accept, I means ignore while R means reject.
  • When doing revision before exam, you should first go through the subtopics that you think is more difficult or that you may have forgotten. Then, go through other topics as well if possible.
  • To prepare for Biology Paper 3 and Paper 5, you should go through all the past year questions and the mark schemes. Find out how every question is marked and which points need to be included in the answers. The pattern of questions set is similar for every year and you should familiarise yourself with the pattern. Usually, the same type of questions will have similar mark scheme, so this can help you when answering exam questions. You should remember the answers for questions that are common.


2. Paper 1

- Read the question and all the options carefully. Write any rough workings on the question paper if you need to. Cancel off the options that you consider as definitely wrong. Then, choose the most suitable answer among the options.

3. Paper 2 and Paper 4

  • Paper 2 and Paper 4 Section A consists of structured questions where you must answer all questions while Paper 4 Section B consists of 2 essay questions where you can choose any one of them. You can answer both questions in Paper 4 Section B if you have time. The examiner will mark your answers for both questions and choose the one where you score higher marks.
  • When answering, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you know what the question is asking for. Answer the questions based on your knowledge and understanding on the relevant topic in Biology. Certain questions may test you on more than one topics. For some questions, you may have to apply what you have learnt in Biology in order to answer them. You have to think carefully and relate the question to what you have learnt. You may also be asked to give your own opinions.
  • When writing your answer, you can use the same or similar words or sentences as those in my notes or in the reference books if possible. However, sometimes you may need to make some changes in order to suit the question. You can also answer in your own sentences that have the same meaning. If the question asks on something that is not in my notes and the reference books (the question requires you to apply what you have learnt in Biology or give your own opinion), then you have to answer in your own sentences. For all questions, your answer must be specific and not too general. Give the most suitable answer according to the question.
  • You should use the correct biological terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all biological terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in biological terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell a non-biological term wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted for as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, such as formula for chemical substances and symbols for units of physical quantities.
  • It is not compulsory to answer in continuous writing form. You are allowed to answer in table form, point form or other suitable forms. In suitable cases, you can also use diagrams, equations or graphs in your answer.
  • When answering questions on calculation, you should show all workings. You should not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the amount of working needed. 1 mark will be given for each important step and the final answer. Correct answer without working usually scores only 1 mark. If your final answer is wrong but some of your working is correct, you may still be given some marks. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'.
  • When describing numerical data shown in a graph or table, you should quote suitable figures together with their units from the graph or table. For graph, each set of figure that you quote should include both the x value and y value and you should quote the figures accurate to half a small square.
  • For questions that require explanation or description, your answer must be very detailed. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of points needed in your answer. 1 mark is given for each correct point. Do not miss out any important points in your answer. You are allowed to write extra points in your answer, but you must be careful not to write any points that contradict one another. Marks will only be given for the correct points. For points that are not acceptable, whether they contain wrong facts or not, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for points that contradict one another, no mark will be given for both the points, even if one of them is correct. You are advised to write extra points if you are not completely sure of what the question is asking for.
  • For questions that do not require explanation or description, write the answer straight away. You need not answer in complete sentences. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of answers needed. You are allowed to write extra answers, but you must be careful not to write answers that contradict one another. Marks will only be given for the correct answers. For answers that are not acceptable, whether they contain wrong facts or not, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for answers that contradict one another, no mark will be given for both the answers, even if one of them is correct.
  • When drawing diagrams, make sure that all important details are included in the diagram you draw. You have to label correctly all parts in the diagram. Your diagram should be clear and neat.


4. Paper 3

  • During the test, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you understand the experiment given. Certain parts of the question require you to record the readings from the experiment in a table. You should draw the tables before carrying out the experiment so that you can record your readings in the table straight away during the experiment. Then, carry out the experiment by following the steps given in the question exactly. You need to apply your Biology practical skills when carrying out the experiment.
  • Certain questions may require your knowledge and understanding in Biology to answer them. You may also need to give your own opinions. Your answer must be specific and not too general. Give the most suitable answer according to the question.
  • When recording readings from an measuring instrument, the number of decimal places used should be equal to half of the smallest division of scale of the instrument (For example, if the instrument's smallest division of scale is 0.1, you should record the reading to the nearest 0.05, which is 2 decimal places.) For digital instruments (except digital stopwatch), the number of decimal places used should be the same as that shown on the display. The reading should be recorded to the nearest 1s for stopwatch (both analogue and digital). In all cases, do not give more or less number of decimal places. You must also write the correct units.
  • When plotting graph, draw both the horizontal and vertical axis on the graph paper correctly. You should plot the independent variable on the x-axis and dependent variable on the y-axis. Label both axis correctly and state the unit (if any). Use a suitable scale for both axis and do not use any odd scales such as 3:10. Both the x-axis and y-axis need not start from 0 (unless otherwise stated by the question). The scales should be chosen such that the graph cover at least half of the graph paper. For line graphs, the markings on the scales should be 2cm apart, plot all points on the graph accurate to half a small square and the diameter of each point should not be larger than half a small square, then draw a curve or straight line that passes through all points on the graph if it is possible to do so, or if it is not possible, you can just use straight lines to join them point-to-point, and in all cases never extrapolate the line. For bar charts, draw blocks with equal width accurate to half a small square, where there must be space between the blocks and the distance between adjacent blocks should be equal, then label every block.
  • For questions on microscopy, you will be required to draw plan diagrams and high power drawings. For all drawings, use pencil to draw, draw as big as possible without drawing over the text of the question and leave enough space for labels, ensure that the lines you draw are thin, single, unbroken, clear & continuous and never shade or colour. When drawing plan diagrams, use low power objective lens of the microscope, show the outlines of the tissues, ensure that the proportions of tissues in the diagram you draw is the same as what you see and do not include drawings of cells. When drawing high power drawings, use high power objective lens of the microscope, draw only what the question asks, show the outlines of the cells, ensure that the proportions of cells in the diagram you draw is the same as what you see, show the cell walls of plant cells as double lines and where plant cells touch there should be 3 lines and show any contents of cells that you can see which may be nucleus, chloroplasts, vacuoles or others. Label your diagram if required by the question. Use a ruler to draw the labelling lines.
  • For any questions involving calculation, the number of significant figures of your answer should be equal to the number of significant figures of the raw value used in the calculation with the least number of significant figures. You should show all workings and do not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'.
  • For questions that require explanation or description, your answer must be very detailed. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of points needed in your answer. 1 mark is given for each correct point. Do not miss out any important points in your answer. You are allowed to write extra points in your answer, but you must be careful not to write any points that contradict one another. Marks will only be given for the correct points. For points that are not acceptable, whether they contain wrong facts or not, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for points that contradict one another, no mark will be given for both the points, even if one of them is correct. You are advised to write extra points if you are not completely sure of what the question is asking for.
  • For questions that do not require explanation or description, write the answer straight away. You need not answer in complete sentences. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of answers needed. You are allowed to write extra answers, but you must be careful not to write answers that contradict one another. Marks will only be given for the correct answers. For answers that are not acceptable, whether they contain wrong facts or not, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for answers that contradict one another, no mark will be given for both the answers, even if one of them is correct.
  • When drawing diagrams, make sure that all important details are included in the diagram you draw. You have to label correctly all parts in the diagram. Your diagram should be clear and neat.
  • For all questions, you should use the correct experimental and biological terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all experimental and biological terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in experimental and biological terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell other terms wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted for as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, such as formula for chemical substances and symbols for units of physical quantities.


5. Paper 5

  • When answering, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you understand the experiment given and know what the question is asking for. Answer the questions based on the experiment and its observations and results. You may need to apply your Biology experimental skills to answer some questions. Certain questions may require your knowledge and understanding in Biology to answer them. You may also need to give your own opinions. For all questions, your answer must be specific and not too general. Give the most suitable answer according to the question.
  • You should use the correct biological and experimental terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all biological and experimental terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in biological and experimental terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell other terms wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted for as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, such as formula for chemical substances and symbols for units of physical quantities.
  • It is not compulsory to answer in continuous writing form. You are allowed to answer in table form, point form or other suitable forms. In suitable cases, you can also use diagrams, equations or graphs in your answer.
  • For any questions involving calculation, the number of significant figures of your answer should be equal to the number of significant figures of the raw value used in the calculation with the least number of significant figures. You should show all workings and do not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'.
  • For questions that require explanation or description, your answer must be very detailed. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of points needed in your answer. 1 mark is given for each correct point. Do not miss out any important points in your answer. You are allowed to write extra points in your answer, but you must be careful not to write any points that contradict one another. Marks will only be given for the correct points. For points that are not acceptable, whether they contain wrong facts or not, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for points that contradict one another, no mark will be given for both the points, even if one of them is correct. You are advised to write extra points if you are not completely sure of what the question is asking for.
  • For questions that do not require explanation or description, write the answer straight away. You need not answer in complete sentences. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of answers needed. You are allowed to write extra answers, but you must be careful not to write answers that contradict one another. Marks will only be given for the correct answers. For answers that are not acceptable, whether they contain wrong facts or not, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for answers that contradict one another, no mark will be given for both the answers, even if one of them is correct.
  • When drawing diagrams, make sure that all important details are included in the diagram you draw. You have to label correctly all parts in the diagram. Your diagram should be clear and neat.
  • When plotting graph, draw both the horizontal and vertical axis on the graph paper correctly. You should plot the independent variable on the x-axis and dependent variable on the y-axis. Label both axis correctly and state the unit (if any). Use a suitable scale for both axis and do not use any odd scales such as 3:10. Both the x-axis and y-axis need not start from 0 (unless otherwise stated by the question). The scales should be chosen such that the graph cover at least half of the graph paper. For line graphs, the markings on the scales should be 2cm apart, plot all points on the graph accurate to half a small square and the diameter of each point should not be larger than half a small square, then draw a curve or straight line that passes through all points on the graph if it is possible to do so, or if it is not possible, you can just use straight lines to join them point-to-point, and in all cases never extrapolate the line. For bar charts, draw blocks with equal width accurate to half a small square, where there must be space between the blocks and the distance between adjacent blocks should be equal, then label every block. After that, draw the error bars based on the standard error or standard deviation if required by the question.
  • For the question on planning experiment, when writing the procedure, you must include the steps to change the independent variable, measure the dependent variable and control the constant variable, as well as other steps required to set up the apparatus. You should also state the potential safety hazards when carrying out the experiment and the ways to avoid them. If there is no significant safety hazard, just state in your answer 'This is a low risk experiment'. Besides, you have to state the ways to improve the reliability of the experiment such as repeating the experiment and calculating the mean or identifying anomalies. In the procedure, you should state the amount and concentration of the substances used. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. You do not need to draw the diagram of set-up apparatus.


Related Post: Revision Notes for CIE AS & A Level Subjects (New 2016 Syllabus)



Daniel Lim Jhao Jian, 20, speaks English, Mandarin and Malay. His hobbies are surfing the internet, watching television and reading. His ambition is to be a doctor.

Daniel was born in Subang Jaya, Selangor, but he grew up in Kulim, Kedah. He lived in Kulim with his grandparents for 17 years. His primary school was SRJK(C) Chong Cheng while his secondary school was SMK Sultan Badlishah. After completing secondary school, he moved to Subang Jaya and he studied Cambridge A Level at Taylor's College Subang Jaya for 1.5 years. Currently, he is living in Johor Bahru, Johor and studying 2nd year of Medicine course at Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia.

These tips were first posted at Daniel's blog.


► Read more on Exam Tips: How to Score A in CIE AS and A Level Biology

Monday, April 25, 2016

3 Things You Need to Start Doing Now If You Want to Become a Doctor

Guest post by Tang Ser Zhun from Ipoh (Share your useful tips with 50,000+ Malaysian students)

I have no doubt whatsoever in my mind that doctors are facing adversity in these recent years, partly because of the advent of mushrooming of doctors in Malaysia and partly because many graduated medical students are known as sub-standard ( quality of the medical students does not reach the standard set by government ) when they are undergoing their houseman training. This petrifies many students as well as parents as they want their children to become a doctor in the future. According to a statement adduced by World Health Organizations (WHO), the ratio between doctors and population in Malaysia will reach 1:400 in the next few years, which indeed, causes people to be skeptical as our country might have jobless doctor in the future. In my opinion, doctors are indeed oversupplied but dedicated doctors are in shortage. So, before I proceed to main part of this essay, let me give you some pieces of advice; you need to ponder over whether doctor really is your passion or not. Ask yourself why do you want to become a doctor? Proof yourself with some evidence or example of it. It is imprudent to think that the purports of being a doctor are “Doctors can earn more money” and “My parents told me to”. You are the one who is going to be a doctor, not your parents. So you are the one who are going to make the choice. If you are still uncertain of your choice, you can refer it at http://pagalavan.com. It gives you all the information you need. If you had recognized your interest, which is to be a doctor, there are three things that you must prioritize throughout your medical studies (even if you had become a doctor).

How to become doctor in Malaysia

1. Improve your English (especially in communication skills)


This is very vital for all the doctors as it helps you to express your thoughts to the patients or their parents, siblings etc. For doctors, I need to emphasize on communication skills. As you can see the newspapers in these recent years, many students graduated from medical school can’t even speak English properly. In the long run, they will be in dire straits if they do not improve their English. Let me ask you; what is the most important thing patients need from the doctors? The answer is trust. The doctors gain cooperation form the patients by making the patients trust them, which is basically, communicating with them. I concur doctor’s job is to save lives, but to say in a more precise way, is to give them warmest hopes when they are in the darkest circumstances. So, if you want to become an eminent doctor, you should start improving your English now and there are thousands of ways to do so.

2. Gain Knowledge


If you want to become a resourceful doctor, you should start gaining knowledge, especially in medical field. This is because once you become a doctor; you are not allowed to refer to the website or your books when you are dealing with the patients. I heard some of the senior doctors said that many doctors nowadays still referring to their books or websites in order to find the prescription in front of the patients. I am not saying that once you become a doctor you can stop gaining knowledge, what I am trying to say is not to refer to any books when you are dealing with the patients. So, before graduating from medical school, gain as much knowledge as you can. It will come in handy in the future. For instance, you can start gaining knowledge by reading the first aid manual book. It guides you how to deal with minor incident such as stroke, seizures and so on.

3. Acquire Personality Traits


This is the most difficult thing to do comparing to the two above. This is because it can eventually change your lifestyle, your habits and so on; nevertheless it is worth to do it. You need to start thinking, what you are doing now is it related to your career in the future? If your answer is yes, then keep going; if your answer is a no, then you should really start ‘invest’ something for your future career. If you are now being a couch potato or idling at home, you are wasting your precious time. People who are successful start putting their effort on things that are related to their future career. That is what passion is all about. So, if you are an introvert person, you can start overcoming your social anxiety by actually coping with your fear. If you find yourself nothing to do, try searching some news or discoveries in medical fields for you to read through, so that you can acknowledge what is happening now and you can express your opinions about it. Acquiring personality traits of good character of a doctor is very important for medical students. If you are unwilling to change now, you will never change yourself in the future as you keep giving pretext not to change yourself into a better person. As the saying goes, “It always seems impossible until it’s done”. You never try, you will never know. =)

Maybe my advices above seem negligible to you, but whether you accept it or not, it’s your choice. Your ambition should not be a doctor, but the crème de la crème of the doctors in the world. I hope that you choose to become a doctor is not for the sake of money, but for the sake of humanity. Throughout your journey to become a doctor, you might experience setbacks, you might experience stressful work, you might experience long working hours, you might also become very depressed, you might…… There are a vast amount of reasons why people do not choose to become a doctor. However, you need to ask yourself, what REALLY makes you choose to become a doctor instead of thousands of other careers? What are your beliefs? Why medicine?


► Read more on 3 Things You Need to Start Doing Now If You Want to Become a Doctor

Friday, April 22, 2016

Exam Tips: How to Score A in CIE AS and A Level Physics

Guest post by Daniel Lim (Share your exam tips with 50,000+ Malaysian students)

I got 4A for my AS Level in October 2013 and 4A* for my A Level in May 2014. The 4 subjects that I took were Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Do you want to know how to score in AS and A Level for these 4 subjects? Here, I am posting the complete tips for AS and A Level. These tips are intended for all students who are sitting for AS or A Level in May 2016 or October 2016.

AS & A Level Physics Tips:

One of the 4 subjects I took was Physics. My percentage uniform mark for Physics was 93% in AS Level and 95% in A Level. Do you want to know how to score in AS and A Level for Physics? Here, I am posting the complete tips for AS and A Level Physics.

CIE AS & A Level Physics Exam Tips

1. Studying tips

  • When your teacher is teaching in class, pay attention to what your teacher says. Make sure you understand everything taught by your teacher. If you do not understand anything, ask your teacher or friends.
  • You need notes or reference books that are complete.
    • For AS, I recommend you to use my notes. You can download my notes here.
    • For A2, I recommend you to use this reference book:
      Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Coursebook, by David Sang, Graham Jones, Gurinder Chadha, Richard Woodside, Will Stark and Aidan Gill (Cambridge University Press)
  • When studying a chapter, read through all the explanations in my notes or in the reference book sentence by sentence. Make sure that you truly understand each sentence before moving on to the next sentence. You also need to know and understand all formulas. Certain topics may require understanding of earlier topics, so make sure you understand those topics. You should also try to relate them to what your teacher had taught in college or school.
  • You should be actively involved in all experiments carried out in college or school because this can help improve your practical skills which are essential for Paper 3 and Paper 5.
  • Then, you have to remember everything that you understood. You can memorise the sentences in my notes or in the reference book, or you can also create your own sentences that have the same meaning and memorise them. If you create your own sentences, make sure that you do not change the original meaning, do not leave out any important points and do not change the important keywords and scientific terms. However, do not just memorise without understanding. Once you have understood, it will be quite easy to remember and you will be unlikely to forget any of the points.
  • For certain facts, there may be no explanation for them so it is not possible to understand them. In that case, you have to remember and memorise those facts.
  • For the calculations, you need to know how to apply what you have learnt and use the correct formula to solve the questions. Go through all the example questions in my notes or in the reference book. Make sure that you understand how every question is solved.
  • You have to regularly revise every topics again and again. When revising, go through all the explanation, facts and examples for calculation questions in my notes or in the reference book. Make sure that you do not forget anything that you have understood previously. Regular and repeated revision will help you to remember all the explanation and facts for a long time.
  • When you have understood all topics, you have to do past year A Level questions. They are available on the internet. After doing the questions, refer to the mark scheme and do self marking. The mark schemes can usually be found on the same website as the past year questions.
  • You should understand how the mark schemes are used. In the mark schemes for Physics, there are 4 types of marks, which are M, C, A and B. The A marks are always dependent on the M marks, which means that A marks can only be scored if the M marks are also scored. If a question does not have M mark, then the A mark can be scored on its own. C marks are automatically scored if the subsequent M or A mark is scored, even if the points for the C marks are not written down, but if the subsequent M or A mark is not scored, then the points for the C marks must be written down in order for the C marks to be scored. On the other hand, B marks are independent of any other marks, which means that they can be scored without other marks also being scored. If any Physics term is underlined or highlighted, it means that the exact term must be used in the answer and no other term is acceptable even if the meaning is the same, but grammatical variants of the term is accepted. If any non-Physics term is underlined or highlighted, it means that either the exact term or other terms with the same meaning must be used in the answer. If any words are placed in brackets, it means that the words need not be present in the answer for the mark to be scored. In the mark schemes, A means accept, I means ignore while R means reject.
  • When doing revision before exam, you should first go through the subtopics that you think is more difficult or that you may have forgotten. Then, go through other topics as well if possible.
  • To prepare for Physics Paper 3 and Paper 5, you should go through all the past year questions and the mark schemes. Find out how every question is marked and which points need to be included in the answers. The pattern of questions set is similar for every year and you should familiarise yourself with the pattern. Usually, the same type of questions will have similar mark scheme, so this can help you when answering exam questions. You should remember the answers for questions that are common.
  • For Physics Paper 3, I also suggest that you memorise my list of 20 common answers (see below) for the limitations and suggestions question which appears in the last part of Question 2. My list is based on the mark schemes for past year questions. Usually 3 of the 4 answers required can be found in my list, and the 1st answer in my list can be used for all experiments. Sometimes, only 2 of the 4 answers required can be found in my list, and sometimes, all the 4 answers required can be found in my list. Note that for the parts of the answers in my list that are placed in brackets, it means that you have to write those parts based on the context of the experiment.


The List of Common Answers for the Limitations and Improvements Question of Paper 3 Question 2:

(a) Two/three readings are not enough to make a valid conclusion
- Take more readings and plot a graph
Note: This answer can be used for all experiments

(b) The value of (a physical quantity) is small so the percentage uncertainty of (the quantity) is large
- (The way to make the value of the quantity larger)

(c) The movement/oscillation of (something) is affected by wind movement
- Use a wind shield when carrying out the experiment

(d) Difficult to determine the start and end of oscillation/movement of (something) because it moves too fast
- Use a video camera with slow motion feature and timer to video the experiment with scale, then view the video playback frame by frame.

(e) Difficult to release (something) without applying a force
- Use a mechanical hand to release the (thing)

(f) Difficult to shape the plasticine into the shape of (something)
- Use a mould to shape the plasticine

(g) Heat loss through the sides and bottom of beaker/container
- Use polystyrene container or insulate the beaker/container
Note: This answer should be used for experiments involving the temperature of liquid.

(h) The (measuring instrument) is not precise enough
- Use another (instrument) with greater sensitivity and precision
Note: You should state in your answer the specific degree of precision for the limitation and the improvement.

(i) The length/diameter/thickness of (something) is not uniform
- Measure the length around/along the (thing) and calculate the mean

(j) Difficult to measure (something) due to (specific reason based on experiment)
- (Suggest a better way to measure it)

(k) Parallax error when measuring (something)
- (Suggest a better way to measure it, such as use mirror scale)
Note: This answer should only be used if the measurement is difficult to make and parallax error is very likely to occur.

(l) (Something) moves
- (Way to keep it in the original position)

(m) Oscillation does not occur in one plane only
Note: No possible improvement for this limitation. You should write in your answer the improvement for any other limitation.

(n) Difficult to maintain (something) at (a particular position) / maintain ruler vertical
- Use a clamp

(o) Difficult to zero the newton-meter when used horizontally
Note: No possible improvement for this limitation. You should write in your answer the improvement for any other limitation.

(p) Friction at pulley
- Apply oil to lubricate the pulley

(q) Resistance of contacts
- Clean the contacts
Note: This answer should be used for electric experiments.

(r) Difficult to determine when (something) reach the maximum height because it remains there for too short a time
(s) Difficult to take the reading of newton-meter immediately when (something) starts to move
because it moves suddenly
(t) Difficult to start or stop the stopwatch immediately when (something) passes through (somewhere)
- Use a video camera with slow motion feature and (the measuring device) to video the experiment with scale, then view the video playback frame by frame.
Note: The same improvement can be used for limitations r, s and t.

2. Paper 1

  • Read the question and all the options carefully. Write any rough workings on the question paper if you need to. Cancel off the options that you consider as definitely wrong. Then, choose the most suitable answer among the options.


3. Paper 2 and Paper 4

  • When answering, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you know what the question is asking for. Answer the questions based on your knowledge and understanding on the relevant topic in Physics. Certain questions may test you on more than one topics. For some questions, you may have to apply what you have learnt in Physics in order to answer them. You have to think carefully and relate the question to what you have learnt. You may also be asked to give your own opinions.
  • When writing your answer, you can use the same or similar words or sentences as those in my notes or in the reference books if possible. However, sometimes you may need to make some changes in order to suit the question. You can also answer in your own sentences that have the same meaning. If the question asks on something that is not in my notes and the reference books (the question requires you to apply what you have learnt in Physics or give your own opinion), then you have to answer in your own sentences. For all questions, your answer must be specific and not too general. Give the most suitable answer according to the question.
  • You should use the correct Physics terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all Physics terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in Physics terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell a non-Physics term wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted for as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, especially for representing physical quantities or their units.
  • It is not compulsory to answer in continuous writing form. You are allowed to answer in table form, point form or other suitable forms. In suitable cases, you can also use diagrams, equations or graphs in your answer.
  • When answering questions on calculation, you should show all workings. You should not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. You are advised to write down the formula used to solve the question, even though it is not compulsory to do so. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the amount of working needed. 1 mark will be given for each important step and the final answer. In some cases, if your final answer is correct, full marks will be given and the workings will not be marked. In other cases, marks can only be given for the final answer if the marks for working are scored, where correct answer without working scores 0 mark. Whichever case, if your final answer is wrong but some of your working is correct, you may still be given some marks. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. When copying figures from the question or from your answer for the previous part of the question, be careful not to copy wrongly. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'. For questions on 'show', 'prove', 'derive' or similar, usually marks are only given for the workings, not the answer, so it is important that you show complete workings, and explain your workings if necessary.
  • Usually, you should give the final answer to 3 significant figures. Do not write your final answer as a fraction or in surd form. However, if the question asks you to give your answer to a specific number of significant figures, then you must follow the instruction, or if the question states that you must give your answer to a suitable number of significant figures, then the number of significant figures of your answer should be equal to the number of significant figures of the raw value used in the calculation with the least number of significant figures.
  • When answering questions which requires you to give an answer as well as an explanation to your answer, such as questions that say 'State and explain', 'Suggest and explain' or something similar, it is very important that you give a complete and clear explanation. Marks can only be given for the answer if the marks for explanation are scored. Therefore, correct answer without satisfactory explanation usually scores 0 mark. On the other hand, if your answer is wrong but some of your explanation is correct, you may still be given some marks. In other words, 'explain' is more important than 'state' or 'suggest'.
  • For questions that require explanation or description, your answer must be very detailed. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of points needed in your answer. 1 mark is given for each correct point. Some of the marks (A marks) may be dependent on other marks (M marks), which means that they can only be scored if the other marks are also scored. Do not miss out any important points in your answer. You are allowed to write extra points in your answer, but you must be careful not to write any points with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct points. For points that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for points that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • For questions that do not require explanation or description, write the answer straight away. You need not answer in complete sentences. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of answers needed. If the question states the number of answers you have to write, then you are not allowed to write extra answers. If you do so, marks may not be given for the extra answers, and marks may be deducted if any of them is wrong. If the question does not state the number of answers you have to write, you are allowed to write extra answers, but you must be careful not to write any answer with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct answers. For answers that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for answers that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • When drawing diagrams, make sure that all important details are included in the diagram you draw. You have to label correctly all parts in the diagram. Your diagram should be clear and neat.


4. Paper 3

  • During the test, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you understand the experiment given. Certain parts of the question require you to record the readings from the experiment in a table. You should draw the tables before carrying out the experiment so that you can record your readings in the table straight away during the experiment. Then, carry out the experiment by following the steps given in the question exactly. You need to apply your Physics practical skills when carrying out the experiment.
  • Certain questions may require your knowledge and understanding in Physics to answer them. You may also need to give your own opinions. Your answer must be specific and not too general. Give the most suitable answer according to the question.
  • When recording readings from an measuring instrument (except metre rule, vernier calipers and micrometre screw gauge), the number of decimal places used should be equal to half of the smallest division of scale of the instrument (For example, if the instrument's smallest division of scale is 0.1, you should record the reading to the nearest 0.05, which is 2 decimal places.) For digital instruments (except digital stopwatch), the number of decimal places used should be the same as that shown on the display. The reading should be recorded to the nearest 0.1cm for metre rule, 0.01cm for vernier calipers, 0.01mm for micrometer screw gauge and 0.1s for stopwatch (both analogue and digital). In all cases, do not give more or less number of decimal places. You must also write the correct units.
  • In most cases, you should take each reading twice, then calculate and record the mean of the 2 readings. Ensure that you show in your answer both readings and the calculation of their mean. However, for the part in Question 1 which requires you to record readings in a table, questions that carry only 1 mark and questions which states that repeated readings are not required, you only need to take each reading once and record it straight away.
  • When plotting graph, draw both the horizontal and vertical axis on the graph paper correctly. Label both axis correctly and state the unit (if any). Use a suitable scale for both axis and do not use any odd scales such as 3:10. Both the x-axis and y-axis need not start from 0. The scales should be chosen such that the points plotted on graph cover at least half of the graph paper. The markings on the scales should not be more than 3 large squares apart. Plot all points on the graph accurately. The points should be accurate to half a small square. For all the points, their diameter should not be larger than half a small square. Then, draw the correct straight line or curve. When drawing the straight line or curve, it should pass through all points on the graph if possible. If this is not possible, the line or curve should pass through as many points on the graph as possible, all the points should be close to it and the number of points above and below the line or curve should be almost equal.
  • When determining the gradient of the line of graph, choose 2 points on the line and draw a triangle. The distance between the 2 points chosen should be at least half the length of the line. When determining the y-intercept of the line of graph, if the x-axis starts from 0, you can read it off directly from the y-axis of graph, or if the x-axis does not start from 0, you should choose a point on the line, preferably one of the points that you used to calculate its gradient, and substitute its x and y values as well as the gradient into the equation y=mx+c to determine the value of c which is the y-intercept.
  • For any questions involving calculation, the number of significant figures of your answer should be equal to or one more than the number of significant figures of the raw value used in the calculation with the least number of significant figures. You should show all workings and do not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'.
  • For the part of Question 2 which asks you to estimate the percentage uncertainty in a particular value, in most cases the absolute uncertainty used to calculate the percentage uncertainty should be equal to twice the smallest division of scale of the instrument used to measure the value (For both analogue and digital stopwatch, the absolute uncertainty used should be 0.2s). This is because the measurement for this part is often difficult to be done accurately.
  • For the part of Question 2 which asks you whether your results support the suggested relationship between 2 variables, you have to calculate the percentage difference between 2 values of a constant which is obtained in previous part of the question. The suggested relationship is supported if the percentage difference is 5% or less and not supported if the percentage difference is more than 5%.
  • For the last part of Question 2 which is about limitations and improvements, I would suggest that you use answers from my list of 20 common answers (see above) that you memorised. The 1st answer in my list can be used for all experiments, so you should always use it. You should also choose other answers from my list which are relevant to the experiment. You may have to give 1 or sometimes 2 other relevant answers that are not in my list since usually not all the 4 answers required can be found in my list. You are not allowed to write more than 4 answers. If you do so, marks may not be given for the extra answers, and marks may be deducted if any of them is wrong.
  • For all questions, you should use the correct experimental and Physics terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all experimental and Physics terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in experimental and Physics terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell other terms wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted for as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, especially for representing physical quantities or their units.


5. Paper 5 Question 1 (Planning Experiment)

  • When answering, read the question given carefully. You have to design a suitable experiment based on the question, either to test whether the suggested relationship between 2 variables is valid or to determine the value of a constant. Your answer must include independent variable, dependent variable, variables to be kept constant, diagram of set-up apparatus, procedure, data analysis, safety precautions and additional details.
  • For the independent variable and dependent variable, they can be obtained easily from the question itself and you should give one of each. For the variables to be kept constant, there is often more than one and you should give all of them that you can think of. Note that the term 'kept constant' or 'keep constant' must be used in your answer and no other terms are acceptable. You need not answer in complete sentences.
  • For the diagram of set-up apparatus, show all the apparatus and material used in the experiment and label them correctly. If a diagram is provided by the question, you can use the same diagram, but it is usually not complete and you have to add other apparatus or materials to it.
  • When writing the procedure, you must include the steps to measure the manipulated variable, responding variable and every variable to be kept constant. For each measurement, you should state the method and apparatus used. For some variables, you may have to measure other quantities in order to calculate them. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. You should also include other steps required to set up the apparatus if you did not show them in the diagram.
  • For the analysis of data, you should explain how a suitable graph should be plotted that enables you to test whether the suggested relationship between the 2 variables is valid or to determine the value of the constant. Sometimes, the graph may be a log-log graph or ln-ln graph. You should also show a sketch of the graph. Then, explain how to determine whether the suggested relationship is valid or to determine the value of the constant based on the graph. This often involves the gradient, y-intercept and rearranging of equation.
  • For the safety precaution, you should state at least 2 potential safety hazards when carrying out the experiment and the ways to avoid each of them.
  • For the additional details, 4 marks will be given and examples of them are how variables are kept constant, calibration of the measuring instruments and additional steps to improve the accuracy and reliability. You may have already stated some of them in other parts of your answer and it is not compulsory to write them again in this part. In this section, you should state the additional details that are not stated in other parts of your answer.
  • For all parts of the question, you are allowed to write extra points in your answer, but you must be careful not to write any points with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct points. For points that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for points that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • You should use the correct experimental and Physics terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all experimental and Physics terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in experimental and Physics terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell other terms wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted for as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, especially for representing physical quantities or their units.


6. Paper 5 Question 2 (Analysis, Conclusions and Evaluation)

  • When answering, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you understand the experiment given and know what the question is asking for. Answer the questions based on the experiment and its observations and results. You may need to apply your Physics experimental skills to answer some questions. Certain questions may require your knowledge and understanding in Physics to answer them.
  • For the graph, plot all points on the graph accurately. The points should be accurate to half a small square. Then, draw the error bars based on the uncertainties of the values given in the question. After that, draw line of best fit. The line should pass through as many points on the graph as possible, all the points should be close to it and the number of points above and below the line should be almost equal. Next, draw the worst acceptable line. It should be either the steepest possible line which passes from the top of top error bar to the bottom of bottom error bar or or the shallowest possible line which passes from the bottom of top error bar to top of bottom error bar. The line must also pass through all error bars.
  • When determining the gradient of line of best fit, choose 2 points on the line and draw a triangle. The distance between the 2 points chosen should be at least half the length of the line. For the uncertainty in gradient, you should also determine the gradient of worst acceptable line using the same method. The uncertainty in gradient is equal to the difference between the 2 gradients.
  • When determining the y-intercept of line of best fit, usually you cannot read it off directly from the y-axis of graph since the x-axis does not start from 0. Instead, you should choose a point on the line, preferably one of the points that you used to calculate its gradient, and substitute its x and y values as well as the gradient into the equation y=mx+c to determine the value of c which is the y-intercept. For the uncertainty in y-intercept, you should also determine the y-intercept of worst acceptable line using the same method. The uncertainty in y-intercept is equal to the difference between the 2 y-intercepts.
  • When calculating the uncertainty in a calculated value, use your knowledge in uncertainties that you learnt in Chapter 2 for AS Level. However, if the calculation is too complicating or if it involves logarithms, there is an alternative method. For this method, you have to determine both the maximum value and minimum value of the calculated value by using the maximum values and/or minimum values of the raw values used in the calculation of the calculated value based on their uncertainties. You have to be very careful to ensure that the maximum value and minimum value you determined are correct. The absolute uncertainty is equal to half of the difference between the maximum and minimum value.
  • For any questions involving calculation, the number of significant figures of your answer should be equal to or one more than the number of significant figures of the raw value used in the calculation with the least number of significant figures. For absolute uncertainties, the number of decimal places should be equal to the number of decimal places of the value. You should show all workings and do not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'.


Related Post: Revision Notes for CIE AS & A Level Subjects (New 2016 Syllabus)



Daniel Lim Jhao Jian, 20, speaks English, Mandarin and Malay. His hobbies are surfing the internet, watching television and reading. His ambition is to be a doctor.

Daniel was born in Subang Jaya, Selangor, but he grew up in Kulim, Kedah. He lived in Kulim with his grandparents for 17 years. His primary school was SRJK(C) Chong Cheng while his secondary school was SMK Sultan Badlishah. After completing secondary school, he moved to Subang Jaya and he studied Cambridge A Level at Taylor's College Subang Jaya for 1.5 years. Currently, he is living in Johor Bahru, Johor and studying 2nd year of Medicine course at Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia.

These tips were first posted at Daniel's blog.


► Read more on Exam Tips: How to Score A in CIE AS and A Level Physics

Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Exam Tips: How to Score A in CIE AS and A Level Chemistry

Guest post by Daniel Lim (Share your exam tips with 50,000+ Malaysian students)

I got 4A for my AS Level in October 2013 and 4A* for my A Level in May 2014. The 4 subjects that I took were Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Do you want to know how to score in AS and A Level for these 4 subjects? Here, I am posting the complete tips for AS and A Level. These tips are intended for all students who are sitting for AS or A Level in May 2016 or October 2016.

AS & A Level Chemistry Tips:

One of the 4 subjects I took was Chemistry. My percentage uniform mark for Chemistry was 96% in AS Level and 93% in A Level. Do you want to know how to score in AS and A Level for Chemistry? Here, I am posting the complete tips for AS and A Level Chemistry.

CIE AS & A Level Chemistry Exam Tips

1. Studying tips

  • When your teacher is teaching in class, pay attention to what your teacher says. Make sure you understand everything taught by your teacher. If you do not understand anything, ask your teacher or friends.
  • You need notes or reference books that are complete.
    • For AS, I recommend you to use my notes. You can download my notes here.
    • For A2, I recommend you to use this reference book:
      Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry, by Peter Cann and Peter Hughes (Hachette UK)
  • When studying a chapter, read through all the explanations in my notes or in the reference book sentence by sentence. Make sure that you truly understand each sentence before moving on to the next sentence. Certain topics may require understanding of earlier topics, so make sure you understand those topics. You should also try to relate them to what your teacher had taught in college or school.
  • You should be actively involved in all experiments carried out in college or school because this can help improve your practical skills which are essential for Paper 3 and Paper 5.
  • Then, you have to remember everything that you understood. You can memorise the sentences in my notes or in the reference book, or you can also create your own sentences that have the same meaning and memorise them. If you create your own sentences, make sure that you do not change the original meaning, do not leave out any important points and do not change the important keywords and scientific terms. However, do not just memorise without understanding. Once you have understood, it will be quite easy to remember and you will be unlikely to forget any of the points.
  • For certain facts, there may be no explanation for them so it is not possible to understand them. In that case, you have to remember and memorise those facts.
  • For the calculations, you need to know how to apply what you have learnt and use the correct formula to solve the questions. Go through all the example questions in my notes or in the reference book. Make sure that you understand how every question is solved.
  • You have to regularly revise every topics again and again. When revising, go through all the explanation, facts and examples for calculation questions in my notes or in the reference book. Make sure that you do not forget anything that you have understood previously. Regular and repeated revision will help you to remember all the explanation and facts for a long time.
  • When you have understood all topics, you have to do past year A Level questions. They are available on the internet. After doing the questions, refer to the mark scheme and do self marking. The mark schemes can usually be found on the same website as the past year questions.
  • You should understand how the mark schemes are used. In the mark schemes for Chemistry, most marks are independent of any other marks, which means that they can be scored without other marks also being scored, unless otherwise stated by the mark scheme. If any Chemistry term is underlined or highlighted, it means that the exact term must be used in the answer and no other term is acceptable even if the meaning is the same, but grammatical variants of the term is accepted. If any non-Chemistry term is underlined or highlighted, it means that either the exact term or other terms with the same meaning must be used in the answer. If any words are placed in brackets, it means that the words need not be present in the answer for the mark to be scored. In the mark schemes, A means accept, I means ignore while R means reject.
  • When doing revision before exam, you should first go through the subtopics that you think is more difficult or that you may have forgotten. Then, go through other topics as well if possible.
  • To prepare for Chemistry Paper 3 and Paper 5, you should go through all the past year questions and the mark schemes. Find out how every question is marked and which points need to be included in the answers. The pattern of questions set is similar for every year and you should familiarise yourself with the pattern. Usually, the same type of questions will have similar mark scheme, so this can help you when answering exam questions. You should remember the answers for questions that are common.


2. Paper 1

  • Read the question and all the options carefully. Write any rough workings on the question paper if you need to. Cancel off the options that you consider as definitely wrong. Then, choose the most suitable answer among the options.


3. Paper 2 and Paper 4

  • When answering, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you know what the question is asking for. Answer the questions based on your knowledge and understanding on the relevant topic in Chemistry. Certain questions may test you on more than one topics. For some questions, you may have to apply what you have learnt in Chemistry in order to answer them. You have to think carefully and relate the question to what you have learnt. You may also be asked to give your own opinions.
  • When writing your answer, you can use the same or similar words or sentences as those in my notes or in the reference books if possible. However, sometimes you may need to make some changes in order to suit the question. You can also answer in your own sentences that have the same meaning. If the question asks on something that is not in my notes and the reference books (the question requires you to apply what you have learnt in Chemistry or give your own opinion), then you have to answer in your own sentences. For all questions, your answer must be specific and not too general. Give the most suitable answer according to the question.
  • You should use the correct Chemistry terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all Chemistry terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in Chemistry terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell a non-Chemistry term wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, such as formula for chemical substances and symbols for units of physical quantities.
  • It is not compulsory to answer in continuous writing form. You are allowed to answer in table form, point form or other suitable forms. In suitable cases, you can also use diagrams, equations or graphs in your answer.
  • When answering questions on calculation, you should show all workings. You should not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. You are advised to write down the formula used to solve the question, even though it is not compulsory to do so. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the amount of working needed. 1 mark will be given for each important step and the final answer. Correct answer without working usually scores only 1 mark. If your final answer is wrong but some of your working is correct, you may still be given some marks. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. When copying figures from the question or from your answer for the previous part of the question, be careful not to copy wrongly. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'.
  • Usually, you should give the final answer to 3 significant figures. Do not write your final answer as a fraction or in surd form. However, if the question asks you to give your answer to a specific number of significant figures, then you must follow the instruction, or if the question states that you must give your answer to a suitable number of significant figures, then the number of significant figures of your answer should be equal to the number of significant figures of the raw value used in the calculation with the least number of significant figures.
  • For questions that require explanation or description, your answer must be very detailed. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of points needed in your answer. 1 mark is given for each correct point. Do not miss out any important points in your answer. You are allowed to write extra points in your answer, but you must be careful not to write any points with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct points. For points that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for points that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • For questions that do not require explanation or description, write the answer straight away. You need not answer in complete sentences. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of answers needed. If the question states the number of answers you have to write, then you are not allowed to write extra answers. If you do so, marks may not be given for the extra answers, and marks may be deducted if any of them is wrong. If the question does not state the number of answers you have to write, you are allowed to write extra answers, but you must be careful not to write any answer with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct answers. For answers that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for answers that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • When drawing diagrams, make sure that all important details are included in the diagram you draw. You have to label correctly all parts in the diagram. Your diagram should be clear and neat.


4. Paper 3

  • During the test, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you understand the experiment given. Certain parts of the question require you to record the readings from the experiment in a table. You should draw the tables before carrying out the experiment so that you can record your readings in the table straight away during the experiment. Then, carry out the experiment by following the steps given in the question exactly. You need to apply your Chemistry practical skills when carrying out the experiment.
  • Certain questions may require your knowledge and understanding in Chemistry to answer them. You may also need to give your own opinions. Your answer must be specific and not too general. Give the most suitable answer according to the question.
  • When recording readings from an measuring instrument, the number of decimal places used should be equal to half of the smallest division of scale of the instrument (For example, if the instrument's smallest division of scale is 0.1, you should record the reading to the nearest 0.05, which is 2 decimal places.) For digital instruments (except digital stopwatch), the number of decimal places used should be the same as that shown on the display. The reading should be recorded to the nearest 1s for stopwatch (both analogue and digital). In all cases, do not give more or less number of decimal places. You must also write the correct units.
  • For questions on titration, you should first perform a rough titration, then perform 2 accurate titrations. Record the initial burette reading and final burette reading for each titration, then calculate the titre. You should record everything in a table. All readings should be recorded to 2 decimal places. The titre for the 2 accurate titrations should not differ by more than 0.10cm3. Then, calculate the mean titre for the 2 accurate titrations. The mean should be given to 2 decimal places.
  • When plotting graph, draw both the horizontal and vertical axis on the graph paper correctly. Label both axis correctly and state the unit (if any). Use a suitable scale for both axis and do not use any odd scales such as 3:10. Both the x-axis and y-axis need not start from 0 (unless otherwise stated by the question). The scales should be chosen such that the points plotted on graph cover at least half of the graph paper. Plot all points on the graph accurately. The points should be accurate to half a small square. For all the points, their diameter should not be larger than half a small square. Then, draw the correct straight line or curve. When drawing the straight line or curve, it should pass through all points on the graph if possible. If this is not possible, the line or curve should pass through as many points on the graph as possible, all the points should be close to it and the number of points above and below the line or curve should be almost equal. When determining the gradient of a straight-line graph, choose 2 points on the line and draw a triangle. The distance between the 2 points chosen should be at least half the length of the line.
  • For questions on qualitative analysis, for each chemical test, you should use about 1cm depth or 2cm3 of each solution unless otherwise stated by the question. You have to record the full observations. State if there is any colour change or if precipitate forms. For any colour change, indicate both the initial and final colour, as well as the stage in which the change occurs if more than one reagents are added. If precipitate forms, state the colour of precipitate and whether it is soluble in excess of the reagent added, and if it is soluble state the colour of the solution formed. If you see any bubbles formed, it means that gas is released, and you should carry out gas tests to determine what the gas is. Only gas tests in the Qualitative Analysis Notes at the last page of question paper should be carried out. The gas can be any one of the 6 gases, but based on the type of reagents added and your experience in doing Chemistry practical work, you may be able to predict the type of gas released and thus choose the appropriate gas test to be carried out (For example, if a metal is added to an unknown solution and gas is released, it is likely that the solution is an acid and thus hydrogen gas is released, so you should carry out the gas test for hydrogen). State that effervescence occurs and state the observations of the gas test which is positive and the type of gas released. When determining the type of an unknown chemical, it should be based on your observations of the chemical tests carried out and refer to the Qualitative Analysis Notes at the last page of question paper.
  • For any questions involving calculation, the number of significant figures of your answer should be equal to or one more than the number of significant figures of the raw value used in the calculation with the least number of significant figures. You should show all workings and do not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'.
  • For questions that require explanation or description, your answer must be very detailed. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of points needed in your answer. 1 mark is given for each correct point. Do not miss out any important points in your answer. You are allowed to write extra points in your answer, but you must be careful not to write any points with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct points. For points that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for points that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • For questions that do not require explanation or description, write the answer straight away. You need not answer in complete sentences. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of answers needed. If the question states the number of answers you have to write, then you are not allowed to write extra answers. If you do so, marks may not be given for the extra answers, and marks may be deducted if any of them is wrong. If the question does not state the number of answers you have to write, you are allowed to write extra answers, but you must be careful not to write any answer with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct answers. For answers that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for answers that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • When drawing diagrams, make sure that all important details are included in the diagram you draw. You have to label correctly all parts in the diagram. Your diagram should be clear and neat.
  • For all questions, you should use the correct experimental and Chemistry terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all experimental and Chemistry terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in experimental and Chemistry terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell other terms wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted for as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, such as formula for chemical substances and symbols for units of physical quantities.


5. Paper 5

  • When answering, read the question and all information given carefully. Make sure that you understand the experiment given and know what the question is asking for. Answer the questions based on the experiment and its observations and results. You may need to apply your Chemistry experimental skills to answer some questions. Certain questions may require your knowledge and understanding in Chemistry to answer them. You may also need to give your own opinions. For all questions, your answer must be specific and not too general. Give the most suitable answer according to the question.
  • You should use the correct Chemistry and experimental terms in your answer. Do not replace them with other terms that are inappropriate, even if their meaning are the same. You should spell all Chemistry and experimental terms correctly. If you can't do so, try to spell it in such a way where it sounds the same as the actual term when read out. Marks are usually not deducted for spelling errors in Chemistry and experimental terms as long as it still sounds the same and that it is not easily confused with other terms. If you spell other terms wrongly or if you make grammatical errors in your answer, marks will not be deducted for as long as the examiner can understand what you are writing. You are allowed to use suitable short forms in your answer, such as formula for chemical substances and symbols for units of physical quantities.
  • It is not compulsory to answer in continuous writing form. You are allowed to answer in table form, point form or other suitable forms. In suitable cases, you can also use diagrams, equations or graphs in your answer.
  • For any questions involving calculation, the number of significant figures of your answer should be equal to or one more than the number of significant figures of the raw value used in the calculation with the least number of significant figures. If you are in doubt, give your answer to 3 significant figures. You should show all workings and do not skip any important steps. You must also write the correct unit for the final answer if it is not provided. You are not allowed to write extra solutions or answers. If you do so and any of the answers or solutions is wrong, marks will be deducted. For a calculation question which requires you to use your answer from the previous question, even if your answer for the previous question is wrong and you use it for this question causing your answer for this question to be wrong, usually you will still get full marks for this question as long as your calculation for this question is correct. This is known as 'error carried forward'.
  • For questions that require explanation or description, your answer must be very detailed. You are advised to answer in complete sentences so that your answer can be easily understood. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of points needed in your answer. 1 mark is given for each correct point. Do not miss out any important points in your answer. You are allowed to write extra points in your answer, but you must be careful not to write any points with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct points. For points that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for points that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • For questions that do not require explanation or description, write the answer straight away. You need not answer in complete sentences. The number of marks allocated for the question usually shows the number of answers needed. If the question states the number of answers you have to write, then you are not allowed to write extra answers. If you do so, marks may not be given for the extra answers, and marks may be deducted if any of them is wrong. If the question does not state the number of answers you have to write, you are allowed to write extra answers, but you must be careful not to write any answer with wrong facts. Marks will only be given for the correct answers. For answers that are irrelevant but does not contain wrong facts, no mark will be given or deducted. However, for answers that contain wrong facts, marks may be deducted.
  • When drawing diagrams, make sure that all important details are included in the diagram you draw. You have to label correctly all parts in the diagram. Your diagram should be clear and neat.
  • When plotting graph, draw both the horizontal and vertical axis on the graph paper correctly. Label both axis correctly and state the unit (if any). Use a suitable scale for both axis and do not use any odd scales such as 3:10. Both the x-axis and y-axis need not start from 0 (unless otherwise stated by the question). The scales should be chosen such that the points plotted on graph cover at least half of the graph paper. Plot all points on the graph accurately. The points should be accurate to half a small square. For all the points, their diameter should not be larger than half a small square. Then, draw the correct straight line or curve. When drawing the straight line or curve, it should pass through as many points on the graph as possible, all the points should be close to it and the number of points above and below the line or curve should be almost equal. However, usually one or more points on the graph are anomalous, which should be ignored when drawing the straight line or curve. The line or curve should not be deviated to accommodate them.
  • For the question which asks you to suggest the reason for the anomalous points on the graph, common reasons are that a particular measurement is done before or after the moment it should be done, the actual value of a quantity is higher or lower than the measured value, incomplete oxidation/reduction, incomplete decomposition, loss of water/chemical, a compound has decomposed or other similar reasons. Note that these are only the general answers, but you have to give more specific answers based on the question.

Related Post: Revision Notes for CIE AS & A Level Subjects (New 2016 Syllabus)



Daniel Lim Jhao Jian, 20, speaks English, Mandarin and Malay. His hobbies are surfing the internet, watching television and reading. His ambition is to be a doctor.

Daniel was born in Subang Jaya, Selangor, but he grew up in Kulim, Kedah. He lived in Kulim with his grandparents for 17 years. His primary school was SRJK(C) Chong Cheng while his secondary school was SMK Sultan Badlishah. After completing secondary school, he moved to Subang Jaya and he studied Cambridge A Level at Taylor's College Subang Jaya for 1.5 years. Currently, he is living in Johor Bahru, Johor and studying 2nd year of Medicine course at Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia.

These tips were first posted at Daniel's blog.


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